Environmental conditions were particularly severe during the Last Glacial Maximum, altering the distribution of the Southern Hemisphere biota, particularly at higher latitudes. The copepod Boeckella poppei is the only macroscopic continental invertebrate species known to be distributed today across the three main biogeographic regions in Antarctica as well as in southern South America. Signy Island (South Orkney Islands) is a unique location for the study of Antarctic freshwater ecosystems due to its location and geographic isolation; it contains 17 lakes in several low altitude catchments. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic analyses using the cox1 gene on 84 individuals of B. poppei from seven lakes across Signy Island. We recorded low levels of genetic diversity and a strong genetic differentiation signal between the eastern and western valleys within the island. Phylogeographic structure and demographic inference analyses suggested at least one asymmetrical dispersal event from west to east. Demographic inference detected a strong signal of population growth during the deglaciation process, which may have followed either (1) a strong genetic bottleneck due to a reduction in population size during the last glacial period, or (2) a founder effect associated with postglacial recolonization of Signy Island from elsewhere. The genetic architecture of this island’s populations of B. poppei shows that historical events, rather than continuous dispersal events, likely played a major role in the species’ current distribution. Finally, our study considers possible mechanisms for dispersal and colonization success of the most dominant species in the Antarctic freshwater community.
Congratulations to sisters, Preksha and Pernika Agarwal, of the Division of Recreation Floor Hockey League, on their 2nd place finishes in their respective divisions. ×
Edit this setlist | More Metallica setlists Coming off a successful performance at last weekend’s Global Citizen Festival, heavy metal superstars Metallica had some time to spend in NYC before their appearance on The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon this Thursday night. So, the veteran rockers decided to add a last-minute, fan-club only show at the intimate Grand Ballroom inside Webster Hall. Metallica are one of the biggest bands in the world, constantly playing large-scale venues like stadiums and arenas with giant pyrotechnic displays; however, at Webster Hall, they performed without all of the bells and whistles that they’re used to, leaving James Hetfield, Lars Ulrich, Kirk Hammet, and Rob Trujillo with nothing else to do but rock out like the legends they are. The band brought with them a hit-packed 90-minute show that rocked Webster Hall to its core, with a setlist almost entirely made up of songs written in 1991 or earlier.Taking the stage just before 9:00pm, the band was greeted with huge roars by the excited crowd. The show then kicked off with a cover of “Breadfan” by Budgie, a song that Metallica has been playing live since the late 80s, but hadn’t played in concert since 2013. The band then dusted off another track for the first time since 2013, “Holier Than Thou”, a track from their beloved self-titled 1991 album known as “The Black Album”, and the energy really picked up during this song, with lots of crowd surfing and fist-pumping from the crowd. The night had a “holy shit” feeling throughout, as seeing Metallica in a 1,000 person room, at this point in their career, is beyond rare. “Holier Than Thou” transitioned directly into one of their first hits, the speed-metal “Battery” from their 1986 album Master of Puppets.After the trio of faster opening songs, the band “slowed things down” with a pulsing version of “Harvester of Sorrow” from 1988’s …And Justice For All. The band kept the favorites coming, as Hetfield’s guitar tech brought out his acoustic guitar so he could play the famous opening from “Fade to Black”. Hammet’s lead guitar playing remains terrific, mixing classic rock, metal, and thrash guitar playing into his own unique style. “Fade to Black” was tremendous, with the band nailing all of the composed sections, with Hetfield, Hammet, and Trujillo eventually linking up to create a triple harmony rock-star moment. The band followed up these oldies with a debut performance of their new song “Moth Into Flame”, which is the lead single from their forthcoming album “Hardwired… To Self Destruct”.Following the lone new track, Metallica started a set-closing six-song run through their most beloved material. The band started this segment off with a raucous “Sad But True”, which once again gave Hammet a moment to showcase his awesome guitar prowess. Next up was “Orion”, one of the band’s most revered compositions, and they certainly delivered a powerhouse version of the instrumental favorite. The band played “Orion” for the first time since 2014, busting it out in honor of the late Cliff Burton, their original bass player who played on the Master of Puppets record, who tragically passed away thirty years ago during Metallica’s 1986 tour of Europe. Hetfield made sure to say a quick word about Burton as the rest of the band geared up for another absolute classic in “One”. The band moved through the track gracefully before turning up the heat when they reached the song’s thrash-metal breakdown.The crowd was going absolutely wild for “One” when Metallica kicked off their magnum opus, “Master of Puppets”. The audience ate it up, pumping their fists along with the song’s “Master! Master!” chant, followed by Hammet’s ridiculous guitar solo that whipped the crowd into a frenzy. Metallica kept the classics coming with a powerful version of Ride The Lightning‘s “For Whom The Bell Tolls”, before they brought the set to a close with perhaps their most famous song, “Enter Sandman”.After a short break, Metallica returned to the stage for an encore, starting things off with their cover of the traditional Irish song “Whiskey In The Jar”, which was made famous in the 70s by Thin Lizzy. Metallica followed up the cover with another new song in “Hardwired”. “Hardwired” surprisingly fits in with their older tunes, with a mix of speed metal and catchy riffs that could easily have come from one of their albums in the 80s or 90s. The band then brought things to a close with another classic oldie, “Seek & Destroy” from their 1983 debut record Kill ‘Em All.All in all, the audience at Webster Hall was treated to a beyond special night of hard-rocking music. During their 90-minute set, Metallica played material from six of their albums, five of which were released in 1991 or earlier, and they threw in two of their oldest covers. Hetfield spoke to the crowd directly, and the larger-than-life rockstar personas were dropped for what truly felt like a more intimate experience with Metallica. With that in mind, the night had a throwback vibe, harkening back to the days of long hair, mosh pits, and leather jackets. Metallica doesn’t mess around in the live setting; they deliver, insisting on playing their biggest hit songs each night, while also constantly mixing up the setlist to include rarities and requests. Metal may not rule the world anymore, but Metallica certainly does, and they showed their command of the stage with last night’s incredible performance at Webster Hall. Ulrich took the microphone at the end of the night and mentioned that the band would be back in the area in 2017, so, if you have the chance to see Metallica next summer, make it a priority to be there!See below for a few videos from the show, including the live debut of “Moth Into Flame.”Watch Metallica perform “Holier Than Thou” at Webster Hall, courtesy of YouTube user john erigo.Watch Metallica perform “Moth Into Flame” at Webster Hall, courtesy of YouTube user Metal Injection.Watch Metallica perform “For Whom The Bell Tolls” at Webster Hall, courtesy of john erigo.Watch Metallica perform “Seek And Destroy” at Webster Hall, courtesy of YouTube user SuburbanAntiChrist.Thanks to photographer Jeremy Gordon, we can live through these spectacular moments through the gallery below. Load remaining images