Current estimates suggest there are now up to 22,000 objects floating around in near Earth orbit, all of varying sizes and shapes, (and all catalogued in the SSN) and it has been noted that objects as small as just one centimeter are capable of inflicting a lot of damage to current, fragile satellites. If the SST performs well, it is likely the Air Force will deploy duplicate telescopes around the globe to offer a 360° view of the sky. Nine years in development, and with a price tag of $110 million, the new telescope will likely become ever more crucial as more and more space debris accumulates in orbit around the Earth as older satellites go off-line and new satellites are launched. The primary area of concern will be objects in geosynchronous orbit, (those traveling at speeds to match the Earth’s rotation so as to appear to hover in one place over the planet) as that’s where the military stations most of its spy satellites.To achieve these new feats, engineers at MIT’s aerospace division, used a 3.5-meter aperture that connects to a curved charge-coupled device capable of capturing photons and turning them into electrons, which can then be digitally processed to produce the desired images. This technology allowed for an aperture that is more than three times the size of normal ground based telescopes and gives the telescope the ability to grab wide angle shots of the night sky, rather than the pin-point view that has been available up to now. Coupling that with a frame that allows the telescope to move quickly in its base, the SST is expected to give the Air Force a very precise view of where space debris is located, and where it’s going, giving satellite operators ample time to alter the course of their spacecraft. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further Launch delayed for satellite to watch space debris More information: www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/TTO/Pro … Telescope_(SST).aspx Citation: DARPA unveils new telescope to protect satellites from space debris (2011, April 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-darpa-unveils-telescope-satellites-space.html (PhysOrg.com) — The U.S. Defense Department’s, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force (and many unknown contractors of course) has announced the addition of a new telescope which it intends to add to the Air Force’s existing Space Surveillance Network (SSN); dubbed the Space Surveillance Telescope (SST), it will be capable of scanning the skies faster than other existing telescope of its size and will be able to collect data faster for dimmer objects to boot. The new telescope’s main mission is to track space debris to help in collision avoidance with the many sensitive satellites now circling the Earth. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
One of the obstacles involved in building a quantum memory is that it is difficult to get a true quantum effect due to the decoherence associated with noise, when working at room temperature. “With previous demonstrations in this quantum regime, ultracold atomic gases or cryogenic solid state materials have been used as a storage medium,” Walmsley explains.Walmsley is part of a group working to create room temperature solutions for quantum computing. The group, working out of Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford, includes Klaus Reim, Patrick Michelberger, Ka Chung Lee, Joshua Nunn and Nathan Langford as well as Walmsley. The results of their efforts can be seen in Physical Review Letters: “Single-Photon-Level Quantum Memory at Room Temperature.”“Our breakthrough is two-fold,” Walmsley explains. “Using a so-called Raman interaction allowed a dramatic increase in potential bandwidth. The second advantage is that you can use these warm vapors, allowing quantum operation at room temperature.”In order to make their quantum memory work, Walmsley and his colleagues store information in the collective state of atoms in a warm vapor. “This concept has been around for years, but we are looking at how to make it work practically at room temperature.”The team at Oxford uses a strong off-resonant control pulse to store a weak quantum light pulse. “It’s two step,” he says. “We put in the quantum light with a control pulse. Because their frequencies are tuned out of resonance with the atoms, neither is absorbed without the other. This allows you larger bandwidth.” “Additionally, because neither is absorbed without the other, you don’t have extraneous atoms that have absorbed energy from the control pulse alone, and which can then give away this energy in the form of noise photons,” Walmsley continues. “It’s these extra photons that have added to the noise in previous attempts, and been a deal-breaker for room-temperature quantum memories.” The use of warm atomic cesium vapors show that quantum operation can be achieved in ambient conditions.Walmsley says that, already, their technique offers applications. “Even though the memory isn’t perfect yet, there are some things we can do, like entanglement distillation.” He explains that he thinks that this technique could improve the efficiency of quantum repeaters. “The idea of a quantum repeater has been around for about 12 years now, but without a memory you get a degree of degraded quality so that signals are lost. Theoretically, our system could make quantum repeaters a reality.”Room temperature quantum memory would be a great step forward for quantum communications and quantum information processing. Quantum repeaters might need to be placed in remote areas, or in areas that are warm. Reliable quantum memory will be needed in the coming years as secure quantum communications are in greater demand. Walmsley hopes that his group can be at the forefront of turning the possibilities into realities. “While there are things we can do now, there is still a great deal of room for improvement,” he says. “We want to improve efficiency, and the stability of the memory.” Another important point will be to shrink the technology. “We want to miniaturize it so that it is small enough to integrate into fiber optic networks,” Walmsley continues. “This is a definite breakthrough, but we still have some way to go.” Physicists demonstrate 100-fold speed increase in optical quantum memory Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: K.F. Reim, P. Michelberger, K.C. Lee, J. Nunn, N.K. Langford, and I.A. Walmsley, “Single-Photon-Level Quantum Memory at Room Temperature,” Physical Review Letters (2011). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.053603 Explore further Citation: Reducing noise in quantum operation at room temperature (2011, August 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-noise-quantum-room-temperature.html (PhysOrg.com) — “A quantum memory is a crucial component of future quantum information processing technologies. Among these technologies, a quantum communications system based on light will enable vastly improved performance over conventional systems, and allow quantum computers to be connected,” Ian Walmsley tells PhysOrg.com. Walmsley is a scientist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. “Building such as system will require a means to effect the temporary storage of single light quanta – photons.”
Proposed 2-norbornyl cation structures. (A) Nonclassical Cs structure of the 2-norbornyl cation, depicted in 3c-2e and “pi” complex formulations. (B) Brown’s rapidly equilibrating C1 classical norbornyl cation enantiomers. Credit: (c) Science 5 July 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6141 pp. 62-64 DOI: 10.1126/science.1238849 Chemists find smallest number of water molecules needed to form an ice crystal (Phys.org) —A team of chemists working in Germany has finally, after decades of debate, solved the crystal structure of the nonclassical 2-norbornyl carbocation. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the arduous process involved in the work they did that led to the eventual determination of the nonclassical crystal structure of the ion. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: German scientists solve nonclassical 2-norbornyl carbocation structure (2013, July 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-german-scientists-nonclassical-norbornyl-carbocation.html More information: Crystal Structure Determination of the Nonclassical 2-Norbornyl Cation, Science 5 July 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6141 pp. 62-64 DOI: 10.1126/science.1238849AbstractAfter decades of vituperative debate over the classical or nonclassical structure of the 2-norbornyl cation, the long-sought x-ray crystallographic proof of the bridged, nonclassical geometry of this prototype carbonium ion in the solvated [C7H11]+[Al2Br7]– • CH2Br2 salt has finally been realized. This achievement required exceptional treatment. Crystals obtained by reacting norbornyl bromide with aluminum tribromide in CH2Br2 undergo a reversible order-disorder phase transition at 86 kelvin due to internal 6,1,2-hydride shifts of the 2-norbornyl cation moiety. Cooling with careful annealing gave a suitably ordered phase. Data collection at 40 kelvin and refinement revealed similar molecular structures of three independent 2-norbornyl cations in the unit cell. All three structures agree very well with quantum chemical calculations at the MP2(FC)/def2-QZVPP level of theory. Journal information: Science © 2013 Phys.org Explore further A debate has gone on for 64 years regarding the classical or nonclassical nature of the 2-norbornyl carbocation. It was in 1949 that Saul Winstein suggested their existence to explain the reactivity of substituted norbornane compounds. Other chemists such as Herbert Brown, reacted negatively to the suggestion because it meant accepting that carbon could be bonded to more than four other atoms. Brown suggested instead that a rapid equilibrium could occur to explain what chemists had been observing, which would allow them to remain categorized as classical.Over the years, the debate has swung back and forth with various chemists arguing for one side or the other, with most eventually leaning towards the nonclassical 2-norbornyl carbocation structure—but now it appears, the chemists in this new effort have finally put the issue to rest. As it turned out, it appeared the vital condition that allowed for settlement of the argument came down to constructing an experiment that involved cooling the crystals with careful annealing at just the right temperature.The breakthrough came at a lab on the campus of the University of Freiburg. The team used soft bromoaluminate anions to stabilize carbocations in a solid state. That allowed for the preparation of regular 2-norbornyl cation salt crystals. Then, after much work revolving around how the crystals react to cold temperatures, the team arrived at a procedure that involved cooling a sample of the crystal to 40K, then allowing it to warm, then cooling it again—five or six times—doing so finally allowed the crystal structure to reveal itself without cracking in the process.With the true nonclassical structure of the crystals finally revealed, several chemists have taken the opportunity to pronounce that the results of the work in Germany did little really but prove what most in the field already knew.
Journal information: Physical Review Letters More information: Brian A. Camley et al. Emergent Collective Chemotaxis without Single-Cell Gradient Sensing, Physical Review Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.098101 . On Arxiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06698ABSTRACTMany eukaryotic cells chemotax, sensing and following chemical gradients. However, experiments show that even under conditions when single cells cannot chemotax, small clusters may still follow a gradient. This behavior is observed in neural crest cells, in lymphocytes, and during border cell migration in Drosophila, but its origin remains puzzling. Here, we propose a new mechanism underlying this “collective guidance,” and study a model based on this mechanism both analytically and computationally. Our approach posits that contact inhibition of locomotion, where cells polarize away from cell-cell contact, is regulated by the chemoattractant. Individual cells must measure the mean attractant value, but need not measure its gradient, to give rise to directional motility for a cell cluster. We present analytic formulas for how the cluster velocity and chemotactic index depend on the number and organization of cells in the cluster. The presence of strong orientation effects provides a simple test for our theory of collective guidance. , arXiv Signal-dependent contact inhibition of locomotion creates directed motion. Credit: arXiv:1506.06698 [physics.bio-ph] (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers with the University of California and Rice University has created a model of chemotaxis that shows how individual cells may work together to respond to a chemical-concentration gradient. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team explains what went into creating the model, how it works and why they believe it closely approximates real live cell chemotaxis. Explore further Citation: Model simulates chemotaxis with clusters of eukaryotic cells (2016, March 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-simulates-chemotaxis-clusters-eukaryotic-cells.html © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Discovered: A cluster of 60 proteins that help cells move and feel Chemotaxis is an action that occurs with cells where they move towards increasing concentrations of a chemoattractant—for food, or to get to a place they know they are supposed to be, to build organs or tissue, for example. Sometimes chemotaxis occurs with individual cells, but other times it occurs in groups when individual cells work together to allow them to move to a desired destination. How cells work together to do so, however, has not been understood—in this new effort, the researchers have built a computer model that suggests one possibility.To build their model, the researchers began with what has already been learned through observation and experimentation—when cells get close together, for example, they react by trying to move farther away—tests have shown that cells also tend to move away from one another more quickly as chemical concentrations increase. The researchers set proportional variables to represent such actions. They also focused on both rigid and non-rigid clusters (where cells are stuck together and are attempting to pull apart or do actually pull apart). For rigid clusters, the researchers noted that general directional movement would be in the direction of the cell that was attempting to move away from the other the hardest. For non-rigid clusters, they noted that the cells still tended to move in the direction of the cell that pulled away the hardest, but they did so slower than with rigid-clusters. Adding such information allowed for the creation of cell movement simulations, that when compared to real world cell movement, coincided, suggesting the model was correctly identifying the means by which chemotaxis works when more than one cell is involved.The researchers suggest that the model could be further validated by additional testing with real world cells—by analyzing how they respond under different conditions, for example, and comparing that with what the model shows.
© 2017 Phys.org Journal information: Nature Communications Prior research had shown that the tiny birch caterpillar uses parts of its body to communicate with other caterpillars. In this new effort, the researchers found that the caterpillars use more body parts than originally thought, and use them to communicate in a number of ways.To learn more about communication among birch caterpillars, the researchers captured several specimens and brought them into their lab for study. They placed them on birch leaves and then set up microphones capable of capturing the sounds made by the insects, which are inaudible to humans, along with cameras to capture the action.In studying the resulting videos the researchers found that the caterpillars made four main types of sounds, all believed to be associated with feeding and making silk—birch caterpillars make cocoons as a group, sharing the workload. The actual sounds, the team found, were made in several ways—by rubbing or scraping mouth parts (mainly mandibles) against a leaf, by shaking their bodies or by dragging anal parts against a leaf surface.The research team has not yet figured out why the simple caterpillar needs to make such a variety of sounds, but suggest it has to do with drawing others of its kind closer and to help with working together. Some sounds may indicate that food has been found, for example, while others note problems. The team also found that on occasion, a solitary caterpillar would make a certain sound and within a couple of hours, several other caterpillars would make their way over to it. It has been noted that cracking the communications used by caterpillars could lead to developing a new kind of pesticide—jammers that prevent them from sharing feeding tips, engaging in cocoon building or perhaps from resolving differences among themselves. Explore further Study suggests virus impacts caterpillar’s phototactic response causing them to climb This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. , Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers with members from institutions in Canada and Brazil has found that one species of caterpillar uses parts of its body to create vibrational noises that attract others of its kind. In their paper published in the journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, the team describes their study of the tiny insects and the possible impact their results could have on pesticide development. Caterpillar, Drepana arcuata. Credit: Nature Communications 1, 1–9. doi:10.1038/ncomms1002 Citation: Caterpillars found to use vibrations to attract other caterpillars (2017, March 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-caterpillars-vibrations.html More information: C. Yadav et al. Invitation by vibration: recruitment to feeding shelters in social caterpillars, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s00265-017-2280-xAbstractSociality is widespread in caterpillars, but the communication mechanisms used for group formation and cohesion are poorly understood. Here, we present the first evidence that caterpillars produce complex vibratory signals to advertise food and shelter sites to conspecifics. We first tested the hypothesis that early instars of the masked birch caterpillar (Drepana arcuata) actively form groups. Larvae placed alone on different leaves of a birch twig began assembling within minutes and forming groups of 2–6 at a median time of 2 h. In Y-choice experiments, larvae joined arms occupied by conspecifics significantly more frequently than unoccupied arms. To test the hypothesis that group formation is vibration-mediated, signals were monitored in solitary residents of silk leaf shelters before and during natural recruitment events. Four distinct signal types were recorded: anal scraping, mandible drumming, mandible scraping, and buzz scraping. Anal scraping and buzz scraping were the most common in residents prior to being approached, and these signals were strongly correlated to feeding and laying silk. Signaling occurred in 100% of residents, and higher signal rates resulted in significantly faster recruitment times. As a recruit approached a resident, complex signaling interactions occurred, which may communicate information about resource quality or location. We conclude that caterpillars, similar to other social animals, use acoustic communication to advertise resources. The vibratory signaling repertoire of these tiny caterpillars exhibits a complexity rivaling that of eusocial insects. Further investigations of vibroacoustic communication are essential to fully appreciate the intricacies of social interactions in caterpillars and other juvenile insects.
Citation: Newly discovered giant viruses have ‘the most complete translational apparatus of known virosphere’ (2018, March 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-newly-giant-viruses-apparatus-virosphere.html It has been only a little more than a decade since a team of researchers identified Mimivirus, a giant virus that caused biologists to rethink the nature of viruses. That effort will likely heat up as two new strains of a giant virus have been discovered, both in Brazil—one in Soda Lake, the other off the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Together, the two new strains have been named Tupanvirus, after the Brazilian god Tupã.More remarkable than their size is the complexity of their genome—they were found to have approximately 1.5 million DNA base pairs and enough genes to create 1,425 types of proteins—a translational apparatus larger than all other viruses. It is their ability to produce their own peptides using RNA instructions that sets them and Mimivirus apart from other viruses—all others must rely on their hosts for protein synthesis. It is this ability that has biologists scratching their heads—before the discovery of Mimivirus, they were not even willing to call viruses forms of life—for example, they do not have metabolism because they do not eat or digest anything. These new findings suggest that viruses might have to be reclassified. The giant viruses, which are so large they are actually bigger than some bacteria, are also able to perform DNA replication and repair as well as transcription and translation—something only living organisms are supposedly able to do. Intriguingly, approximately 30 percent of their genome is still undocumented, so there is more to learn.The researchers note that like Mimivirus, Tupanvirus infect amoebae, which they use as a form of viral factory to produce copies of themselves. Unlike Mimivirus, however, the two new strains are able to infect multiple types of amoebae. A team of researchers with members from several institutions in France, Brazil and Sweden has discovered two new strains of giant viruses, which they note have “the most complete translational apparatus of the known virosphere.” In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the group describe characteristics of the viruses including details about their genomes. Credit: Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03168-1 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Communications Explore further More information: Jônatas Abrahão et al. Tailed giant Tupanvirus possesses the most complete translational apparatus of the known virosphere, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03168-1AbstractHere we report the discovery of two Tupanvirus strains, the longest tailed Mimiviridae members isolated in amoebae. Their genomes are 1.44–1.51 Mb linear double-strand DNA coding for 1276–1425 predicted proteins. Tupanviruses share the same ancestors with mimivirus lineages and these giant viruses present the largest translational apparatus within the known virosphere, with up to 70 tRNA, 20 aaRS, 11 factors for all translation steps, and factors related to tRNA/mRNA maturation and ribosome protein modification. Moreover, two sequences with significant similarity to intronic regions of 18 S rRNA genes are encoded by the tupanviruses and highly expressed. In this translation-associated gene set, only the ribosome is lacking. At high multiplicity of infections, tupanvirus is also cytotoxic and causes a severe shutdown of ribosomal RNA and a progressive degradation of the nucleus in host and non-host cells. The analysis of tupanviruses constitutes a new step toward understanding the evolution of giant viruses. Giant virus found in marine predatory plankton © 2018 Phys.org
A lady with a decade of experience with television and a zeal for sports has decided to give India a reason to smile. Meet Aparna Apte Gupta, documentary film maker, who has taken on the herculean task of revealing a sparkling side to Indian sports in a documentary called India Sporting Struggle. We call the task at hand a tough one as Gupta herself admits that we Indians have the terrible habit of harping on that that is bad with our country. We talk about crumbling infrastructures, lack of facilities and lack of government initiatives. Especially in the field of sports, we have all debated or heard people complaining about how Indians haven’t bagged enough trophies and medals in international events – we blame the government, we blame the players. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Gupta points out that there are sports facilities that work on pay-and-use option and no one seems to be using them. These places were created for the recent Commonwealth Games and post the whole hoopla, now lie unused. ‘It is not like the government doesn’t do anything – it is time we accepted that there are shortcomings from our end as well,’ says Gupta. However she does admit that there is obvious scope for the government to up their efforts in this front, but the process must be two-fold. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIndia has a very dismissive attitude towards sports says Gupta. Children are made to choose academics over sports as almost every parent considers sports to be a waste of time. Only in rare cases would people find parents encouraging kids to pursue a sport seriously. And then again cricket, tennis and now badminton get the thumbs-up while athletics, basketball, hockey, football, et all lie ignored. It is all about where the glamour lies and little glory. Gupta blames the lack of awareness for this phenomenon, ‘Most people are not aware of sports that can offer ample chances to flourish. The motivation and the will is lacking because no one knows enough,’ she says. To turn the tide, Gupta has picked three child prodigies from the country. Shubham Jaglan (8) a milkman’s son is currently playing three Golf tournaments back to back in the USA. He has already won the World Championship. He’s currently playing the U.S. Kids Championship. Bipasha Mukherjee (14) is autistic. This January, Bipasha brought back a gold and a silver medal in Ice Speed Skating at the World Paralympics held in Korea. Bipasha’s parents have dealt with taunts from family members who value education more than anything else, says Gupta. Prayag Chauhan (15) from Haryana, an automobile dealer’s son is a boxer. Prayag’s parents pushed him and his brother into sports. Their parents have a passion for sports but struggled to deal with school authorities and family members who taunted them for ‘misleading’ their children. Even neighbours gossiped when Prayag’s mother learnt to drive so she could drive both the boys to training and back – such is India. Bringing their stories to the forefront will hopefully make people sit up and pay attention, explains Gupta. While her documentary is not necessarily a pro-government discourse, there are problems that the government must acknowledge and deal with – it is more about creating an awareness and trying to read the larger issue in Indian society which prohibits us from utilising real potential.
Sanchayan Screening of archival films and video recordings, Sangeet Natak Akademi is presenting Mitra a play in Marathi featuring Shreeram Lagoo on Saturday, December 6, at Meghdoot III, Rabindra Bhavan, Copernicus Marg, New Delhi. Entry is free. The play is directed by Vijay Kenkre, and the duration of the play is 160 minutesShreeram Balkrishna Lagoo, born in 1927 in Satara, Maharashtra, became involved in theatre as a student of medicine at Pune. Eventually, he left the medical profession in 1968 to devote himself to the theatre, acquiring a reputation as an actor by his forceful portrayal of central characters in Marathi plays such as Gidhare, Nat Samrat, Surya Pahilela Manoos, Udhwasta Dharmashala and Mitra. At the same time he stared appearing in Marathi and Hindi films. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Lagoo has been associated with many prestigious theatre groups and institutions. He is a founder-member of the Progressive Dramatic Association in Pune, the city where he also established his own theatre group Roopwedh. Lagoo has published an autobiography, Lamaan, centred on his life in the theatre. He has also written a book on voice culture, Vachik Abhinay, and prepared an adaptation of Ugo Betti’s Queen and Rebels in Marathi. A compilation of articles on his work was published by Rohan Prakashan on his 75th birthday in a book titled Amhala Bhetalele. He is the recipient of various honours including the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1971), the Padma Shri (1974), and the Kalidas Samman (1996-97), Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship (2009) and many other awards including the Filmfare Award and the Maharashtra State Film Award.
Kolkata: The state Food and Supplies department will offer dealership to 1,500 more ration shops in the state, after the state Panchayat elections. “We presently have dealership of 21,000 shops. We will be giving 1,500 more in different districts across the state,” state Food and Supplies minister Jyotipriya Mallick said.Sources in the Food department said that self-help groups and cooperatives will be given priority in the dealership offer. “Offering of dealership to ration shops had been stalled since the Left regime. We are now opening it up,” a senior official of the department said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be mentioned that for dealership, members of self-help groups will have to form a group with 10 people and then apply for the same. “They will be allowed to open up a ration shop in any of their residential premises. The government will not charge anything from the SHGs,” the official maintained. According to the official, the department will go for individual dealerships only when applications of SHGs and cooperatives fall short of the 1,500 target. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed”We have found out that SHG women are very serious and dedicated to their duties and responsibilities. We are hopeful that the ration shops will function well under them,” he added.The decision of the department comes in the wake of a number of ration shops being closed due to various factors. “Some ration dealers have died while some licenses have been cancelled due to corruption of the dealers. People are being compelled to travel long distances for their rations. The new ration shops will be of great help to them,” the official said.Most of these ration shops will come up in the rural areas, while a handful of them will also come up in urban areas, as per plans of the Food department.The Food department’s notification will come up after the conclusion of the Panchayat elections.
Kolkata: A 46-year-old man has been arrested on charges of raping a minor girl. The incident took place in Battala area of Balurghat in South Dinajpur.The accused Swapan Patoari took the girl to one of his relative’s house where he allegedly raped her. Patoari lives in the same village as the victim does. The victim was taken to Balurghat hospital for examinations.According to the police, the victim, a student of class X was returning home from a private tuition riding her bicycle on Sunday morning when the accused took her to his relative’s house. He asked the victim to keep her bicycle at the Balurghat bus stand and then both of them took a bus to the destination. It was alleged that Patoari raped the girl there. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAfter returning home, the victim girl narrated the matter to her family members. The family members lodged a complaint with the local police station on the basis of which police have started a probe andarrested the culprit.The victim said she agreed to accompany the accused as she knew him and he used to come to her house. The victim also fell ill during night as a result of which she was taken to the hospital where tests were performed. It was learnt that during the interrogation, the middle aged man admitted to his crime.
Kolkata: New Town Kolkata Development Authority (NKDA) will give green tokens to those who have successfully maintained the saplings that were given to them in 2017 as part of its massive afforestation drive jointly with the state Forest department.Those who can obtain two out of the three green tokens will be given T-shirt and other gifts to encourage them to grow plants with care. Five young mothers and their daughters were given saplings under the Sabujshree project at a function held near the Clock Tower in New Town on Saturday afternoon. The unique project is an initiative of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee where young mothers and their daughters are given saplings. The family is supposed to grow the tree and when the girl child attains the age of 18 years, the family can sell the tree to help her study further. The NKDA will distribute a pack of 25 saplings among schools, colleges and other institutions in New Town as part of the drive. It has also taken steps for avenue plantation. All those who attended the function were given two saplings. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe NKDA will set up an urban pocket garden near the Clock Tower and senior officials will plant saplings for the same.New Town is coming up as a green city and various measures have already been taken in this regard. There is waste water recycling and the recycled water is being used to water the roadside plants. LED lamps have been installed to bring down pollution levels.Bicycles have been introduced as part of the cycle sharing scheme. Electric air-conditioned buses have been introduced and e-cars will soon be launched. Eco Park has also been developed as the biggest urban park in eastern India.
Kolkata: Around 22,899 people have been provided emergency medical assistance by KARMA and 18,927 road traffic accident (RTA) victims have been transported safely to the nearest hospital.The service is provided 24×7 totally free of cost to the road traffic accident victims of Kolkata. Besides, the Kolkata police also help any other ailing person across the city to reach nearby medical centres free of cost, as a part of community policing, said Mitesh Jain, Joint Commissioner (traffic). Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeMajula Singh, CSR Head, Medica Group, said: “KARMA provides instant help to the RTA victims and transports them to the nearest hospital so that no time is lost in getting them adequate medical aid. Before KARMA, no other organised service was there to facilitate emergency aid to the road traffic accident victims in Kolkata. Since its inception, only six RTA victims have been brought to Medica Hospital, which reflects Medica’s commitment to the community.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedKARMA operations are supported by the Kolkata Police traffic control room and the Motor Transport Section and are managed round-the-clock by a Command Centre located within Medica Superspecialty Hospital. KARMA has a fleet of 18 ambulances deployed at various locations in Kolkata along with trained paramedics. With two emergency medical technicians apart from a Kolkata Police personnel and a driver, the ambulances, which are fully equipped with all basic life support medical equipment, receive 10-15 calls every.
Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of India – the parent body of over 28000 Freemasons in India – Grand Lodge of India has decided to take up an ambitious charitable project of setting up over 100 dialysis centres all over the India to provide dialysis at a subsidised price of around Rs 350 per patient, which is nearly one-third of the market price. These centres will be set up in the Masonic premises in various cities. Another unique project being taken up by the Grand Lodge of India is to provide pure drinking water generated out of air to people living in remote areas. The drinking water machine can run on both electricity and solar power. Each machine will cost around Rs 30,000 and over Rs 1 lakh with solar panels. The project, known as MARG (Masonic Amrut Ras Generator), would be of immense use for people living in drought prone areas where ladies have to walk several kilometers to fetch drinking water. The water machine generates water from the humidity in air and can generate about 15 liters of drinking water in a day. The first project is being set up in Pench forest reserve area near Nagpur, Maharashtra for the officers on duty in the forest. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfGrand Lodge of India had also recently felicitated Gallantry Award Winners and war widows of Uri and Baramulah terrorist attack. Along with this Grand Lodge of India had given five residential apartments free of cost to the war widows of these soldiers and they spend over Rs 1.50 crore for purchase of land and construction of these apartments. According to MW Bro Ranauta (Grand Master of Grand Lodge of India), the apartments for the widows of Uri martyrs will be constructed in association with President’s Gallantry Awardees Association of India. All these projects will be funded by donations raised from Freemasons all over the country.According to MW Bro Harcharan Singh Ranauta (OSM Grand Master of Grand Lodge of India), Freemasons believe in the Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Mankind. Charity is the distinguishing characteristic of Freemasons. The money we spend on such large scale charitable projects is contributed by our members out of their savings from their hard earned money.
Kolkata: Three youths were arrested by Pragati Maidan police station on Saturday night for allegedly molesting a woman inside a moving bus.On hearing the victim scream for help, police personnel doing naka checking intercepted the bus and arrested the trio identified as Shaikh Pervez, Shaikh Mujibar and Shaikh Aftab. According to sources, on Saturday night, some police personnel were performing naka checking near Ambedkar bridge off Eastern metropolitan (EM) Bypass. Around 9 pm, they heard the screams of a woman coming from a private bus which was moving towards Science City. Immediately, police stopped the bus and some of them boarded the bus. Then, they noticed three youths and a woman in middle of an altercation and the youths were found to be hurling expletives at her. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAll four of them were and taken to Pragati Maidan police station. Later, the woman, a resident of Minakha, told cops that she boarded the bus from Malancha-Howrah route from Ghatakpukur. During her journey, the trio had molested her. It is alleged that the trio also boarded the bus from Ghatakpukur and were asking for her mobile number. But the woman avoided and remained seated without giving replying to them. However, the situation turned worse when the youths started hurling expletives at her. Though some passengers and the bus conductor saw the entire incident, none of them protested. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseHaving no other way out, she screamed while the bus was moving towards Ambedkar bridge on Basanti Highway. The youths got furious and physically abused the woman. The woman later lodged a complaint at Pragati Maidan police station. During interrogation it was revealed that the trio works at a tannery in Ghatakpukur. It was learnt that the youths used to follow the woman as she is a daily passenger of that route.
Kolkata: The Bengal government has submitted a report to the office of the Election Commission stating that steps have been taken against all potential trouble-mongers across the state.The Election Commission had earlier instructed senior officials of the state government to take adequate measures and arrest the trouble-mongers who could trigger violence during the polls. The Commission also instructed senior police officers of the state to execute all the non-bailable cases which were still pending in the state. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIt was learnt that more than 20,000 trouble-mongers have been identified both by the city and the district police. The Election Commission also wanted to know from senior police officers in the state if any steps were taken against the miscreants. A report was also sought from them. It can be mentioned here that during his recent visit to the state, Deputy Election Commissioner Sudip Jain had asked Director General of Police Virendra and the then Kolkata Police Commissioner Anuj Sharma to ensure that all the trouble-mongers should be sent behind bars as a pre-emptive measure ahead of elections. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateVarious political parties also raised a number of issues including the intimidation of voters with the Election Commission. It was also learnt that during his meeting with the election officials, Jain expressed his dissatisfaction over the implementation of the non-bailable cases in some districts. The districts like South 24-Parganas, East and West Burdwan were identified as having a huge number of trouble-mongers. In the report submitted to the Commission by the state government, officials claimed that steps have been taken against all the potential trouble-mongers. Recently-appointed Special Central Police Observer in the state Vivek Dubey also took a stock of the overall law and order situation in the state and also on various pending cases. The full Bench of the Election Commission of India (ECI) in February held meetings with the top government officials and issued necessary instructions on what measures need to be taken to ensure a free and fair election. The ECI full Bench also discussed the law and order situation in the state.
Why do we fear death and how do we overcome this fear and rise to a higher level of consciousness? The fear comes primarily for two related reasons. The first is that we don’t understand what death amounts to, and the second is simply that the life we are leading is going to end, author Sarada Chiruvolu writes in ‘Home at Last: A Journey Toward Higher Consciousness’.”The prospect of almost any ending, such as the loss of a home, the death of a loved one, or the end of a personal relationship or a job, may cause fear and anxiety. But to know with certainty that one day we will no longer have this life that we have built for ourselves can be devastating,” writes the Princeton-based Chiruvolu, who travels extensively to other countries and annually to India to work towards her mission of addressing most of the rudimentary needs of the people, because “if these essentials are not taken care of, then a detrimental cycle ensues”. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Apart from the deep-sleep state, we are in contact with our inner Divinity on only two occasions. One is when the subtle body departs and the gross body is dissolved at death, and the other when we are in the highest meditative state and attain enlightenment while still living in the physical body.”In both cases we end up shedding the false identification of our existence, but only the latter involves realising the Self (Truth) while we are conscious. Because of this understanding, the fear of death vanishes when we experience a thorough awareness of the merge into the Absolute (void). Not having known or experienced this dimension beforehand is what causes fear at the prospect of death,” writes Chiruvolu, who gave up a lucrative pharmaceutical career to pursue her spiritual calling. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveIn her own experience, fear lingered for some time until she was able to identify completely with higher awareness by merging repeatedly with emptiness. “It subsided only after the process of realization had been well-established and integrated completely through meditating and experiencing the void repeatedly. We must maintain and continue the practice of being with the new awareness while continuing all our activities. Though the mind may fluctuate in and out at times, a sense of control will come automatically and remain in that higher plane with the feeling of peace,” the author writes. How did the journey begin?”I had practised Reiki for some time to help my husband with certain health issues which brought my interest in meditation to the forefront. From that point on meditation became a habit and a passion,” Chiruvolu told in an interview.There was a sudden radical shift in perception that took place within her that changed everything in the way she viewed life and its purpose. “I felt a strange disinclination toward life in general and what the world has to offer and felt continuously something was missing in spite of having everything. That strangely took me on a deeper inner journey which was not something I had planned or worked on for years or anything. Felt as if it was preordained and was in a sense imposed on me. Suddenly my meditations took me deeper and deeper within and eventually to the final goal,” the author said.The book talks about the author’s meetings with various self-realised individuals and her own experience of self-realisation. What exactly is ‘self-realisation’ or ‘enlightenment’? How is a self-realised person different from an ordinary human being?Self-realisation/enlightenment “is when actual shift from ego consciousness to consciousness of “Self” takes place. We reclaim and re-establish our connection with the source we all come from and realise our own essential nature of being and experiencing that connectedness. One might also describe it as tapping into that oneness of existence: ‘The unification of everything’. That union is the purpose and the ultimate goal of human existence,” the author said. Noting that the purpose of human life is to self-realise, she said the compelled imprisonment of reincarnation will not be enforced. “It ultimately takes us to liberation. It is about how we all can reach that ultimate state of union with all of life,” she added.Self-realised beings are different as their perception of life has changed. “From ordinary consciousness to permanently altered perception of reality, they are more capable of responding and expressing far better. By raising the awareness and perception they can taste larger slice of life. They do not look any different physically but they function with a heightened state of awareness and are able to use their highest potential with that utmost evenness and equanimity,” Chiruvolu explained.
Kolkata: A day after slamming the Centre for highest unemployment rate in the country in 45 years, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Monday urged the youngsters to raise questions on growing joblessness. Banerjee also assured support to the youth on the occasion of the International Youth Day. “Today is International #YouthDay. In #Bangla, we celebrate Youth Day on January 12, Swami Vivekananda’s birth anniversary. I appeal to the youth, the students & the new generation: be strong and ask for answers. There is no answer to unemployment problems,” she tweeted on Monday. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataReferring to Central government data that put Bengal at the top of the states with highest GDP growth, Banerjee said unemployment in the state has dipped by 45 percent under her rule. “Our State #Bangla has brought down unemployment by 45%. The GDP growth of #Bangla is highest in the country. My support is always with the youth, students and the new generation. May you be inspired to reach new heights,” she said. As per the data, Bengal has registered a GDP growth rate of 12.58 percent in 2018-19 while unemployment rate was 6.1 percent during the period. Banerjee had written on Facebook on Sunday: “Our achievement is in sharp contrast to the state of deep recession and complete policy paralysis perpetrated by Central government leading to significant decline of overall growth rate of the country and highest unemployment in 45 years”.
The series Star Trek: The Next Generation ended in 1994, but Sir Patrick Stewart as the cerebral and decisive Captain Jean-Luc Picard maintained his hold over fans’ loyalty ever since, second only to the group that starred in the original show of the 1960s. After the show went off the air, the British actor enjoyed a great deal of career success that had nothing to do with Star Trek, from continuing his stage work in major productions of The Tempest and Hamlet to playing Professor Charles Xavier in the X-Men film series.But now fans may feel they’ve been hit by phasers set to “stun.” Stewart said in a statement released in August 2018 that it is “an unexpected but delightful surprise to find myself excited and invigorated to be returning to Jean-Luc Picard and to explore new dimensions within him. Seeking out new life for him, when I thought that life was over.”Stewart at the 2010 Metropolitan Opera’s opening night of Das Rheingold. Photo by David Shankbone CC BY 3.0The announcement was made at the Las Vegas Star Trek convention. It’s not intended to be a reboot of Star Trek: The Next Generation but seems to be telling the story of Picard’s life after serving as captain of the U.S.S. Enterprise.The series will be coming to CBS All Access, though not many details have been released.USS Enterprise (NCC-1701). Photo by Rob Young CC BY 2.0Stewart, 78 years old, said in his statement: “During these past years, it has been humbling to hear many stories about how The Next Generation brought people comfort, saw them through difficult periods in their lives or how the example of Jean-Luc inspired so many to follow in his footsteps, pursuing science, exploration and leadership,” Stewart said of the years since he made his final appearance as Picard in 2002’s Star Trek: Nemesis. “I feel I’m ready to return to him for the same reason – to research and experience what comforting and reforming light he might shine on these often very dark times. I look forward to working with our brilliant creative team as we endeavor to bring a fresh, unexpected and pertinent story to life once more.”Patrick Stewart at the Berlin Film Festival in February 2017. Photo by Maximilian Bühn CC BY SA 4.0On the live panel discussing the show at the Las Vegas convention, Stewart said, “It may not be the Jean-Luc you know and love. He may be a man who has been changed by his experiences…it will be, I promise you, something different…but it will come with the same love for the universe and our fans we had before.”NASA Q&A With the Stars of STAR TREK BEYONDSpeculation is that CBS All Access will emphasize Star Trek as its core entertainment. According to a story on i09, “CBS executives have confirmed there are other potential Star Trek shows being considered for CBS All Access. The plan looks to be all Star Trek, all the time.”A smaller scale replica of the Starship Enterprise NCC-1701-E at Famous Players Colossus Theatre in Langley, BC, Canada.In an interview, executive vice president of original content Julie McNamara said, “We’re looking at limited series for some Trek shows, and we are looking at ongoing series for some other Trek shows. We’ve obviously announced the one that’s coming next with Sir Patrick Stewart, but we have more in development there.”Jean-Luc Picard as Borg Locutus. Photo by Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame Gryffindor CC BY-SA 3.0From the first season of Star Trek: The Next Generation, it was clear that the show was reeling in new fans. Stewart was a hit as Captain Picard, as was Brent Spiner as Data, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William T. Riker, Michael Dorn as Worf, Marina Sirtis as Deanna Troi, LeVar Burton as Geordi La Forge, and more. The series ran for seven seasons.Captain Picard, a native of France (with a difficult relationship with his adult brother), found comfort in Shakespeare and enjoyed archaeology during his rare moments of free time. He had a longstanding attraction to the ship’s physician, Dr. Beverly Crusher, and lingering trauma from being abducted by the enemy species, the Borg.Read another story from us: Harlan Ellison and His War With ‘Star Trek’Alex Kurtzman will oversee CBS’s new Star Wars series. “With overwhelming joy, it’s a privilege to welcome Sir Patrick Stewart back to the ‘Star Trek’ fold,” Kurtzman said. “For over 20 years, fans have hoped for the return of Captain Jean-Luc Picard and that day is finally here. We can’t wait to forge new ground, surprise people, and honor generations both new and old.”In related news, Star Trek: Discovery Season 2 is set to launch in early 2019.Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.com.
Taiwan is known for many astonishing things. Besides being home to the one-time world’s tallest building Taipei 101, which is on the radar of firework lovers every December 31st, Taiwan is famous for delicious street food, night markets, the unique pearl milk tea, amazing mountains and flower farms. Newly added to the list of amazing places to visit is the Rainbow Village, and its story is remarkable.Rainbow Grand Pastroy House. Photo by Steven R. Barringer CC BY-SA 4.0Surrounded by high-rising skyscrapers and buildings in a 2.8 million residents city of Taichung, Rainbow Village is a colorful oasis in the concrete jungle.The village was previously known as one of many “veteran villages” that the government erected between the 1940s and 1950s for Taiwanese veterans returning from mainland China.Rainbow Village House. Photo by Katja1031 CC BY-SA 4.0These villages were cheaply built and were intended as temporary settlements for to the Kuomintang soldiers.This specific village was home to 1,200 people, but like many of the veteran villages it started to gradually die out. As residents moved away the investors started to buy the land piece by piece.Taichung, Taiwan – April 5, 2015. The colorful drawing on the walls and floor in rainbow military community or village in Taichung.In last 20 years, the majority of these settlements disappeared completely because the government was selling off the land to investors to provide more quality housing for a bigger amount of people.Nowadays, the Rainbow Village only has 11 houses left and a small number of people still living there. Among them is 94-year-old Huang Yung-Fu, a veteran of the Chinese Civil War.Taichung, Taiwan – April 30, 2018. The Rainbow Village street art.The settlement was recently under threat of being demolished, however, this amazing and creative man saved his peaceful home and the rest of the residents are very grateful for it.It all began when Yung-Fu started to paint the interior of his home with colorful birds. Upon seeing how it turned out, he took his art outside.Taichung, Taiwan – April 30, 2018. The Rainbow Village street art.He would wake up every morning at 3 o’clock, take his painting supplies and go outside to paint the houses and the alleys. His art started on the walls, but it soon spilled to windowsills and sidewalks — Huang was unstoppable.He has painted different motifs, such as animals, dolls, manga characters and airplanes, but all in different vibrant colors. The whole place now looks uniquely magical and surrealistic.April 30, 2018. The Rainbow Village in Nantun District, Taichung, Taiwan.A few years ago, students of Ling Tung University discovered these amazing pieces of art. Gradually, the village started to attract attention both from people living in Taichung and from tourists coming from abroad.The fact that the village started to become a tourist attraction and the protest of the locals supported by all the people enamored by Yung-Fu’s art deterred the Taiwanese government from demolishing it.April 30, 2018. The Rainbow Village in Nantun District, Taichung, Taiwan.Yung-Fu was thrilled that his art was being praised and that he could save his and homes of his neighbours, but he said that he would continue to do it even when he was 100-years-old and nobody even knew of his art.Interestingly, he was never an artist, nor did he try any artistic medium, except for his father teaching him how to draw when he was a young child.Taichung, Taiwan – Oct 27, 2018: The Rainbow grandpa, Huang Yung-Fu, is painting the street in Rainbow Village.Nowadays the Rainbow Village and its creator, often referred to Rainbow Grandpa, is on the map of almost every tourist coming to visit Taiwan.Once there you would need only 10 to 15 minutes to walk through it and see all the amazing painting around. The encroaching high, modern buildings are proof of the threat the village was under.Read another story from us: 91-yr-old Street Artist Grandma Has Turned Her Village into a Stunning Art GalleryThe entrance to this magical place is free. As of recently there is a small souvenir shop selling unique handmade goods based on the Rainbow Grandpa’s artwork and run by his grandson.
Megalodon, one of the fiercest and largest predators that has ever lived, is a mystery to both researchers and people interested in marine life. The shark existed for at least 13 million years, with the earliest fossils dating back to 20 million years ago and the latest one to 2.6 million years.Model of a shark’s jaws with two visible rows of teeth.There are two big misconceptions about the species that are now proven to be wrong. The first is that megalodons looked just like a great white — only much bigger. Second is the belief that these tremendous predators still roam the depths of our oceans.Most reconstructions on display present it as an enlarged version of the great white shark. This is due to the fact that scientists believed them to belong to the same family of sharks.Artistic impression of a megalodon pursuing two Eobalaenoptera whales. Photo by Karen Carr CC BY 3.0However, nowadays we know this to not be true. Megalodons belong to a completely different lineage of sharks than the great white and is the last specimen of its family.That lineage ended when the fish became extinct. It is believed that the evolution of this species dates back to 105 million years ago, and that it begins with Cretalamna appendiculata.Depiction of a shark’s head by Nicolas Steno in his work The Head of a Shark DissectedThe oldest definitive ancestor of what was known as a megalodon is Otodus obliquus, a 50-million-year old shark.As opposed to the great white, a megalodon had very long pectoral fins, like the blue shark. Also, fossils prove that the megalodon had a flat jaw and much shorter nose.Six inch megalodon tooth vs two inch great white shark tooth. Each inch equates to about 10 feet of fish: 60-foot megalodon vs 20-foot great white.As Emma Bernard, curator of the fossilized fish collection at Natural History Museum says: “As we’ve found more and more fossils, we’ve realized that the ancestor to the great white shark lived alongside megalodon. Some scientists think they might even have been in competition with each other.”And regardless of what the movie The Meg portrays, it has been proven that the megalodon is extinct, even if some sources still claim that there is a chance that these sharks are still roaming in seclusion.Megalodon may have become coextinct with smaller baleen whale species, such as Piscobalaena nana. Photo © Citron CC BY-SA 3.0Bernard continues: “’If an animal as big as the megalodon still lived in the oceans we would know about it.” First off, as sharks shatter and lose their complete set of teeth once every two weeks the ocean floor would be filled with giant megalodon teeth, it would be impossible for us not to encounter them.Secondly, other marine animals, and their remains, would serve as proof of unfortunate encounters with this giant.Reconstruction by Bashford Dean in 1909.Lastly, even though the megalodon was found all over the world, it is known that it preferred warm waters. The ocean floor would be too cold for it.It is known for sure that it became extinct between 3.6 and 2.6 million years ago, by the end of the Pliocene era. This was the period when the earth entered a cooling cycle. There is a variety of ways in which the cooling of the planet could have significantly contributed to the end of the megalodon.Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) breaching in an attack on seal, South Africa.Scientists have concluded that almost a third of marine animals that were at the bottom of the food chain became extinct, which resulted in predators, such as the megalodon, significantly struggling to feed.As Natural History Museum Magazine explains: “As the adult sharks were dependent on tropical waters, the drop in ocean temperatures likely resulted in a significant loss of habitat. It may also have resulted in the megalodon’s prey either going extinct or adapting to the cooler waters and moving to where the sharks could not follow.”Additionally, megalodons gave birth to their young close to the coast where the water was shallow and warm. Most importantly, shallow waters were used to provide protection from predators that were dangerous for the young sharks.Read another story from us: Mysterious Canines in Texas have DNA of Red Wolves – Thought to be ExtinctHowever, as the warm shallow water turned into ice the megalodon lost its source to securely bring its young into the world. So while megalodons will always exist in the popular imagination and on the big screen, they will never (well I guess never say never) exist in modern reality.